SENATE, No. 297

STATE OF NEW JERSEY

213th LEGISLATURE

 

PRE-FILED FOR INTRODUCTION IN THE 2008 SESSION

 


 

Sponsored by:

Senator THOMAS H. KEAN, JR.

District 21 (Essex, Morris, Somerset and Union)

 

 

 

 

SYNOPSIS

     Provides for an extended term of imprisonment, supervision for life and sex offender registration for the crime of human trafficking under certain circumstances.

 

CURRENT VERSION OF TEXT

     Introduced Pending Technical Review by Legislative Counsel

  


An Act concerning human trafficking and amending various sections of the statutory law.

 

     Be It Enacted by the Senate and General Assembly of the State of New Jersey:

 

     1.  Section 2 of P.L.1994, c.133 (C.2C:7-2) is amended to read as follows:

     2.  a.  (1) A person who has been convicted, adjudicated delinquent or found not guilty by reason of insanity for commission of a sex offense as defined in subsection b. of this section shall register as provided in subsections c. and d. of this section.

     (2) A person who in another jurisdiction is required to register as a sex offender and (a) is enrolled on a full-time or part-time basis in any public or private educational institution in this State, including any secondary school, trade or professional institution, institution of higher education or other post-secondary school, or (b) is employed or carries on a vocation in this State, on either a full-time or a part-time basis, with or without compensation, for more than 14 consecutive days or for an aggregate period exceeding 30 days in a calendar year, shall register in this State as provided in subsections c. and d. of this section.  A person who fails to register as required under this act shall be guilty of a crime of the fourth degree.

     b.  For the purposes of this act a sex offense shall include the following:

     (1) Aggravated sexual assault, sexual assault, aggravated criminal sexual contact, kidnapping pursuant to paragraph (2) of subsection c. of N.J.S.2C:13-1 or an attempt to commit any of these crimes if the court found that the offender's conduct was characterized by a pattern of repetitive, compulsive behavior, regardless of the date of the commission of the offense or the date of conviction;

     (2) A conviction, adjudication of delinquency, or acquittal by reason of insanity for aggravated sexual assault; sexual assault; aggravated criminal sexual contact; kidnapping pursuant to paragraph (2) of subsection c. of N.J.S.2C:13-1; endangering the welfare of a child by engaging in sexual conduct which would impair or debauch the morals of the child pursuant to subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:24-4; endangering the welfare of a child pursuant to paragraphs (3) or (4) or subparagraph (a) of paragraph (5) of subsection b. of N.J.S.2C:24-4; luring or enticing pursuant to section 1 of P.L.1993, c.291 (C.2C:13-6); human trafficking pursuant to section 1 of P.L.2005, c.77 (C.2C:13-8) if the victim is a minor; criminal sexual contact pursuant to N.J.S.2C:14-3b. if the victim is a minor; kidnapping pursuant to N.J.S.2C:13-1, criminal restraint pursuant to N.J.S.2C:13-2, or false imprisonment pursuant to N.J.S.2C:13-3 if the victim is a minor and the offender is not the parent of the victim; knowingly promoting prostitution of a child pursuant to paragraph (3) or paragraph (4) of subsection b. of N.J.S.2C:34-1; or an attempt to commit any of these enumerated offenses if the conviction, adjudication of delinquency or acquittal by reason of insanity is entered on or after the effective date of this act or the offender is serving a sentence of incarceration, probation, parole or other form of community supervision as a result of the offense or is confined following acquittal by reason of insanity or as a result of civil commitment on the effective date of this act;

     (3) A conviction, adjudication of delinquency or acquittal by reason of insanity for an offense similar to any offense enumerated in paragraph (2) or a sentence on the basis of criteria similar to the criteria set forth in paragraph (1) of this subsection entered or imposed under the laws of the United States, this State or another state.

     c.  A person required to register under the provisions of this act shall do so on forms to be provided by the designated registering agency as follows:

     (1) A person who is required to register and who is under supervision in the community on probation, parole, furlough, work release, or a similar program, shall register at the time the person is placed under supervision or no later than 120 days after the effective date of this act, whichever is later, in accordance with procedures established by the Department of Corrections, the Department of Human Services, the Juvenile Justice Commission established pursuant to section 2 of P.L.1995, c.284 (C.52:17B-170) or the Administrative Office of the Courts, whichever is responsible for supervision;

     (2) A person confined in a correctional or juvenile facility or involuntarily committed who is required to register shall register prior to release in accordance with procedures established by the Department of Corrections, the Department of Human Services or the Juvenile Justice Commission;

     (3) A person moving to or returning to this State from another jurisdiction shall register with the chief law enforcement officer of the municipality in which the person will reside or, if the municipality does not have a local police force, the Superintendent of State Police within 120 days of the effective date of this act or 10 days of first residing in or returning to a municipality in this State, whichever is later;

     (4) A person required to register on the basis of a conviction prior to the effective date who is not confined or under supervision on the effective date of this act shall register within 120 days of the effective date of this act with the chief law enforcement officer of the municipality in which the person will reside or, if the municipality does not have a local police force, the Superintendent of State Police;

     (5) A person who in another jurisdiction is required to register as a sex offender and who is enrolled on a full-time or part-time basis in any public or private educational institution in this State, including any secondary school, trade or professional institution, institution of higher education or other post-secondary school shall, within ten days of commencing attendance at such educational institution, register with the chief law enforcement officer of the municipality in which the educational institution is located or, if the municipality does not have a local police force, the Superintendent of State Police;

     (6) A person who in another jurisdiction is required to register as a sex offender and who is employed or carries on a vocation in this State, on either a full-time or a part-time basis, with or without compensation, for more than 14 consecutive days or for an aggregate period exceeding 30 days in a calendar year, shall, within ten days after commencing such employment or vocation, register with the chief law enforcement officer of the municipality in which the employer is located or where the vocation is carried on, as the case may be, or, if the municipality does not have a local police force, the Superintendent of State Police;

     (7) In addition to any other registration requirements set forth in this section, a person required to register under this act who is enrolled at, employed by or carries on a vocation at an institution of higher education or other post-secondary school in this State shall, within ten days after commencing such attendance, employment or vocation, register with the law enforcement unit of the educational institution, if the institution has such a unit.

     d.  Upon a change of address, a person shall notify the law enforcement agency with which the person is registered and shall re-register with the appropriate law enforcement agency no less than 10 days before he intends to first reside at his new address. Upon a change of employment or school enrollment status, a person shall notify the appropriate law enforcement agency no later than five days after any such change.  A person who fails to notify the appropriate law enforcement agency of a change of address or status in accordance with this subsection is guilty of a crime of the fourth degree.

     e.  A person required to register under paragraph (1) of subsection b. of this section or under paragraph (3) of subsection b. due to a sentence imposed on the basis of criteria similar to the criteria set forth in paragraph (1) of subsection b. shall verify his address with the appropriate law enforcement agency every 90 days in a manner prescribed by the Attorney General.  A person required to register under paragraph (2) of subsection b. of this section or under paragraph (3) of subsection b. on the basis of a conviction for an offense similar to an offense enumerated in paragraph (2) of subsection b. shall verify his address annually in a manner prescribed by the Attorney General.  One year after the effective date of this act, the Attorney General shall review, evaluate and, if warranted, modify pursuant to the "Administrative Procedure Act," P.L.1968, c.410 (C.52:14B-1 et seq.) the verification requirement.

     f.  Except as provided in subsection g. of this section, a person required to register under this act may make application to the Superior Court of this State to terminate the obligation upon proof that the person has not committed an offense within 15 years following conviction or release from a correctional facility for any term of imprisonment imposed, whichever is later, and is not likely to pose a threat to the safety of others.

     g.  A person required to register under this section who has been convicted of, adjudicated delinquent, or acquitted by reason of insanity for more than one sex offense as defined in subsection b. of this section or who has been convicted of, adjudicated delinquent, or acquitted by reason of insanity for aggravated sexual assault pursuant to subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:14-2 or sexual assault pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection c. of N.J.S.2C:14-2 is not eligible under subsection f. of this section to make application to the Superior Court of this State to terminate the registration obligation.

(cf: P.L. 2003, c.220,s. 1)

 

     2.  Section 1 of P.L.2005, c.77 (C.2C:13-8) is amended to read as follows:

     1.  Human trafficking. a. A person commits the crime of human trafficking if he :

     (1) knowingly holds, recruits, lures, entices, harbors, transports, provides or obtains, by any means, another, to engage in sexual activity as defined in paragraph (2) of subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:34-1 or to provide labor or services:

     (a) by threats of serious bodily harm or physical restraint against the person or any other person;

     (b) by means of any scheme, plan or pattern intended to cause the person to believe that the person or any other person would suffer serious bodily harm or physical restraint;

     (c) by committing a violation of N.J.S.2C:13-5 against the person; or

     (d) by destroying, concealing, removing, confiscating, or possessing any passport, immigration-related document as defined in section 1 of P.L.1997, c.1 (C.2C:21-31), or other document issued by a governmental agency to any person which could be used as a means of verifying the person's identity or age or any other personal identifying information; or

     (e) by means of the abuse or threatened abuse of the law or legal process; or

     (2) receives anything of value from participation as an organizer, supervisor, financier or manager in a scheme or course of conduct which violates paragraph (1) of this subsection.

     b.  An offense under this section constitutes a crime of the first degree.

     c.  It is an affirmative defense to prosecution for a violation of this section that, during the time of the alleged commission of the offense of human trafficking created by this section, the defendant was a victim of human trafficking.

     d.  Notwithstanding the provisions of N.J.S.2C:43-6, the term of imprisonment imposed for a crime of the first degree under [paragraph (2) of subsection a.] this section shall be either a term of 20 years during which the actor shall not be eligible for parole, or a specific term between 20 years and life imprisonment, of which the actor shall serve 20 years before being eligible for parole.  If the victim of the crime is a minor, the defendant shall be sentenced to an extended term of imprisonment as set forth in paragraph (8) of subsection a. in N.J.S.2C:43-7. It shall be no defense to a prosecution under this paragraph that the actor mistakenly believed that the minor was 18 years of age or older, even if such mistaken belief was reasonable.

     Notwithstanding the provisions of N.J.S.2C:1-8 or any other law, a conviction under this section shall not merge with a conviction of any other criminal offense, nor shall such other conviction merge with a conviction under this section, and the court shall impose separate sentences upon each violation of  this section  and any other criminal offense. The court may not suspend or make any other non-custodial disposition of any person sentenced pursuant to this section. Nothing contained in this section shall be construed in any way to preclude or limit the prosecution or conviction of any person for conspiracy under N.J.S.2C:5-2, or any prosecution or conviction for any other offense.

     Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:43-3, a fine of up to $500,000 may be imposed.

     e.  In addition to any other disposition authorized by law, any person who violates the provisions of this section shall be sentenced to make restitution to any victim. The court shall award to the victim restitution which is the greater of:

     (1) the gross income or value to the defendant of the victim's labor or services; or

     (2) the value of the victim's labor or services as determined by the "New Jersey Prevailing Wage Act," P.L.1963, c.150 (C.34:11-56.25 et seq.), the "New Jersey State Wage and Hour Law," P.L.1966, c.113 (C.34:11-56a et seq.), the Seasonal Farm Labor Act, P.L.1945, c.71 (C.34:9A-1 et seq.), the laws concerning the regulation of child labor in chapter 2 of Title 34 of the Revised Statutes, or any other applicable State law, and the "Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938," 29 U.S.C. s.201 et seq. or any other applicable federal law.

(cf: P.L.2005, c.77, s.1)

 

     3.  Section 2 of P.L. 1994, c.130 (C.2C:43-6.4) is amended to read as follows:

     2.  a.  Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, a judge imposing sentence on a person who has been convicted of aggravated sexual assault, sexual assault, aggravated criminal sexual contact, kidnapping pursuant to paragraph (2) of subsection c. of N.J.S.2C:13-1, human trafficking pursuant to section 1 of P.L. 205, c.77 (C.2C:13-8) if the victim was a minor, endangering the welfare of a child by engaging in sexual conduct which would impair or debauch the morals of the child pursuant to subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:24-4, endangering the welfare of a child pursuant to paragraph (3) of subsection b. of N.J.S.2C:24-4, luring or an attempt to commit any of these offenses shall include, in addition to any sentence authorized by this Code, a special sentence of parole supervision for life.

     b.  The special sentence of parole supervision for life required by this section shall commence immediately upon the defendant's release from incarceration.  If the defendant is serving a sentence of incarceration for another offense at the time he completes the custodial portion of the sentence imposed on the present offense, the special sentence of parole supervision for life shall not commence until the defendant is actually released from incarceration for the other offense.  Persons serving a special sentence of parole supervision for life shall remain in the legal custody of the Commissioner of Corrections, shall be supervised by the Division of Parole of the State Parole Board, shall be subject to the provisions and conditions set forth in subsection c. of section 3 of P.L.1997, c.117 (C.30:4-123.51b) and sections 15 through 19 and 21 of P.L.1979, c.441 (C.30:4-123.59 through 30:4-123.63 and 30:4-123.65), and shall be subject to conditions appropriate to protect the public and foster rehabilitation.  If the defendant violates a condition of a special sentence of parole supervision for life, the defendant shall be subject to the provisions of sections 16 through 19 and 21 of P.L.1979, c.441 (C.30:4-123.60 through 30:4-123.63 and 30:4-123.65), and for the purpose of calculating the limitation on time served pursuant to section 21 of P.L.1979, c.441 (C.30:4-123.65)the custodial term imposed upon the defendant related to the special sentence of parole supervision for life shall be deemed to be a term of life imprisonment.  When the court suspends the imposition of sentence on a defendant who has been convicted of any offense enumerated in subsection a. of this section, the court may not suspend imposition of the special sentence of parole supervision for life, which shall commence immediately, with the Division of Parole of the State Parole Board maintaining supervision over that defendant, including the defendant's compliance with any conditions imposed by the court pursuant to N.J.S.2C:45-1, in accordance with the provisions of this subsection. Nothing contained in this subsection shall prevent the court from at any time proceeding under the provisions of N.J.S.2C:45-1 through 2C:45-4 against any such defendant for a violation of any conditions imposed by the court when it suspended imposition of sentence, or prevent the Division of Parole from proceeding under the provisions of sections 16 through 19 and 21 of P.L.1979. c.441 (C.30:4-123.60 through 30:4-123.63 and C.30:4-123.65) against any such defendant for a violation of any conditions of the special sentence of parole supervision for life, including the conditions imposed by the court pursuant to N.J.S.2C:45-1.  In any such proceeding by the Division of Parole, the provisions of subsection c. of section 3 of P.L.1997, c.117 (C.30:4-123.51b) authorizing revocation and return to prison shall be applicable to such a defendant, notwithstanding that the defendant may not have been sentenced to or served any portion of a custodial term for conviction of an offense enumerated in subsection a. of this section.

     c.  A person sentenced to a term of parole supervision for life may petition the Superior Court for release from that parole supervision. The judge may grant a petition for release from a special sentence of parole supervision for life only upon proof by clear and convincing evidence that the person has not committed a crime for 15 years since the last conviction or release from incarceration, whichever is later, and that the person is not likely to pose a threat to the safety of others if released from parole supervision.  Notwithstanding the provisions of section 22 of P.L.1979, c.441 (C.30:4-123.66), a person sentenced to a term of parole supervision for life may be released from that parole supervision term only by court order as provided in this subsection.

     d.  A person who violates a condition of a special sentence imposed pursuant to this section without good cause is guilty of a crime of the fourth degree.  Notwithstanding any other law to the contrary, a person sentenced pursuant to this subsection shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment, unless the court is clearly convinced that the interests of justice so far outweigh the need to deter this conduct and the interest in public safety that a sentence to imprisonment would be a manifest injustice.  Nothing in this subsection shall preclude subjecting a person who violates any condition of a special sentence of parole supervision for life to the provisions of sections 16 through 19 and 21 of P.L.1979, c.441 (C.30:4-123.60 through 30:4-123.63 and C.30:4-123.65) pursuant to the provisions of subsection c. of section 3 of P.L.1997, c.117 (C.30:4-123.51b).

     e.  A person who, while serving a special sentence of parole supervision for life imposed pursuant to this section, commits a violation of N.J.S.2C:11-3, N.J.S.2C:11-4, N.J.S.2C:11-5, subsection b. of N.J.S.2C:12-1, N.J.S.2C:13-1, N.J.S.2C:13-6, N.J.S.2C:14-2, N.J.S.2C:14-3, N.J.S.2C:24-4, N.J.S.2C:18-2 when the offense is a crime of the second degree, section 1 of P.L.2005, c.77 (C.2C:13-8) if the victim is a minor or subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:39-4 shall be sentenced to an extended term of imprisonment as set forth in N.J.S.2C:43-7, which term shall, notwithstanding the provisions of N.J.S.2C:43-7 or any other law, be served in its entirety prior to the person's resumption of the term of parole supervision for life.

(cf: P.L.2003, c.267, s.1)

 

     4.  N.J.S.2C:43-7 is amended to read as follows:

     2C:43-7.  Sentence of Imprisonment for Crime; Extended Terms.

     a.  In the cases designated in section 2C:44-3, a person who has been convicted of a crime may be sentenced, and in the cases designated in subsection e. of section 2 of P.L.1994, c.130 (C.2C:43-6.4), in subsection b. of section 2 of P.L.1995, c.126 (C.2C:43-7.1) and in the cases designated in section 1 of P.L.1997, c.410 (C.2C:44-5.1), a person who has been convicted of a crime shall be sentenced, to an extended term of imprisonment, as follows:

     (1) In case of aggravated manslaughter sentenced under subsection c. of N.J.S.2C:11-4; or kidnapping when sentenced as a crime of the first degree under paragraph (1) of subsection c. of 2C:13-1; or aggravated sexual assault if the person is eligible for an extended term pursuant to the provisions of subsection g. of N.J.S.2C:44-3 for a specific term of years which shall be between 30 years and life imprisonment;

     (2) Except for the crime of murder and except as provided in paragraph (1) of this subsection, in the case of a crime of the first degree, for a specific term of years which shall be fixed by the court and shall be between 20 years and life imprisonment;

     (3) In the case of a crime of the second degree, for a term which shall be fixed by the court between 10 and 20 years;

     (4) In the case of a crime of the third degree, for a term which shall be fixed by the court between five and 10 years;

     (5) In the case of a crime of the fourth degree pursuant to 2C:43-6c, 2C:43-6g and 2C:44-3d for a term of five years, and in the case of a crime of the fourth degree pursuant to any other provision of law for a term which shall be fixed by the court between three and five years;

     (6) In the case of the crime of murder, for a specific term of years which shall be fixed by the court between 35 years and life imprisonment, of which the defendant shall serve 35 years before being eligible for parole;

     (7) In the case of kidnapping under paragraph (2) of subsection c. of 2C:13-1, for a specific term of years which shall be fixed by the court between 30 years and life imprisonment, of which the defendant shall serve 30 years before being eligible for parole;

     (8) In the case of human trafficking in violation of section 1 of P.L. 2005, c.77 (C.2C:13-8) if the victim was a minor, for a specific term of years which shall be fixed by the court between 30 years and life imprisonment, of which the defendant shall serve 30 years before being eligible for parole.

     b.  As part of a sentence for an extended term and notwithstanding the provisions of 2C:43-9, the court may fix a minimum term not to exceed one-half of the term set pursuant to subsection a. during which the defendant shall not be eligible for parole or a term of 25 years during which time the defendant shall not be eligible for parole where the sentence imposed was life imprisonment; provided that no defendant shall be eligible for parole at a date earlier than otherwise provided by the law governing parole.

     c.  In the case of a person sentenced to an extended term pursuant to 2C:43-6c, 2C:43-6f and 2C:44-3d, the court shall impose a sentence within the ranges permitted by 2C:43-7a(2), (3), (4) or (5) according to the degree or nature of the crime for which the defendant is being sentenced, which sentence shall include a minimum term which shall, except as may be specifically provided by N.J.S.2C:43-6f, be fixed at or between one-third and one-half of the sentence imposed by the court or five years, whichever is greater, during which the defendant shall not be eligible for parole. Where the sentence imposed is life imprisonment, the court shall impose a minimum term of 25 years during which the defendant shall not be eligible for parole, except that where the term of life imprisonment is imposed on a person convicted for a violation of N.J.S.2C:35-3, the term of parole ineligibility shall be 30 years.

     d.  In the case of a person sentenced to an extended term pursuant to N.J.S.2C:43-6g, the court shall impose a sentence within the ranges permitted by N.J.S.2C:43-7a(2), (3), (4) or (5) according to the degree or nature of the crime for which the defendant is being sentenced, which sentence shall include a minimum term which shall be fixed at 15 years for a crime of the first or second degree, eight years for a crime of the third degree, or five years for a crime of the fourth degree during which the defendant shall not be eligible for parole.  Where the sentence imposed is life imprisonment, the court shall impose a minimum term of 25 years during which the defendant shall not be eligible for parole, except that where the term of life imprisonment is imposed on a person convicted of a violation of N.J.S.2C:35-3, the term of parole eligibility shall be 30 years.

(cf: P.L.2003, c.267, s.4)

 

     5.  N.J.S. 2C:44-3 is amended to read as follows:

     2C:44-3. Criteria for Sentence of Extended Term of Imprisonment.

     The court may, upon application of the prosecuting attorney, sentence a person who has been convicted of a crime of the first, second or third degree to an extended term of imprisonment if it finds one or more of the grounds specified in subsection a., b., c., or f. of this section. If the grounds specified in subsection d. are found, and the person is being sentenced for commission of any of the offenses enumerated in N.J.S.2C:43-6c. or N.J.S.2C:43-6g., the court shall sentence the defendant to an extended term as required by N.J.S.2C:43-6c. or N.J.S.2C:43-6g., and application by the prosecutor shall not be required.  The court shall, upon application of the prosecuting attorney, sentence a person who has been convicted of a crime under N.J.S.2C:14-2 or N.J.S.2C:14-3 to an extended term of imprisonment if the grounds specified in subsection g. of this section are found.  The court shall, upon application of the prosecuting attorney, sentence a person who has been convicted of a crime to an extended term of imprisonment if the grounds specified in subsection h. of this section are found.  The court shall, upon application of the prosecuting attorney, sentence a person to an extended term if the imposition of such term is required pursuant to the provisions of section 2 of P.L.1994, c.130 (C.2C:43-6.4).  The court shall, upon application of the prosecuting attorney, sentence a person to an extended term if the grounds specified in subsection i. of this section are found. The finding of the court shall be incorporated in the record.

     a.  The defendant has been convicted of a crime of the first, second or third degree and is a persistent offender.  A persistent offender is a person who at the time of the commission of the crime is 21 years of age or over, who has been previously convicted on at least two separate occasions of two crimes, committed at different times, when he was at least 18 years of age, if the latest in time of these crimes or the date of the defendant's last release from confinement, whichever is later, is within 10 years of the date of the crime for which the defendant is being sentenced.

     b.  The defendant has been convicted of a crime of the first, second or third degree and is a professional criminal.  A professional criminal is a person who committed a crime as part of a continuing criminal activity in concert with two or more persons, and the circumstances of the crime show he has knowingly devoted himself to criminal activity as a major source of livelihood.

     c.  The defendant has been convicted of a crime of the first, second or third degree and committed the crime as consideration for the receipt, or in expectation of the receipt, of anything of pecuniary value the amount of which was unrelated to the proceeds of the crime or he procured the commission of the offense by payment or promise of payment of anything of pecuniary value.

     d.  Second offender with a firearm.  The defendant is at least 18 years of age and has been previously convicted of any of the following crimes:  2C:11-3, 2C:11-4, 2C:12-1b., 2C:13-1, 2C:14-2a., 2C:14-3a., 2C:15-1, 2C:18-2, 2C:29-5, 2C:39-4a., or has been previously convicted of an offense under Title 2A of the New Jersey Statutes or under any statute of the United States or any other state which is substantially equivalent to the offenses enumerated in this subsection and he used or possessed a firearm, as defined in 2C:39-1f., in the course of committing or attempting to commit any of these crimes, including the immediate flight therefrom.

     e.  (Deleted by amendment, P.L.2001, c.443).

     f.  The defendant has been convicted of a crime under any of the following sections: N.J.S.2C:11-4, N.J.S.2C:12-1b., N.J.S.2C:13-1, N.J.S.2C:14-2a., N.J.S.2C:14-3a., N.J.S.2C:15-1, N.J.S.2C:18-2, N.J.S.2C:29-2b., N.J.S.2C:29-5, N.J.S.2C:35-5, and in the course of committing or attempting to commit the crime, including the immediate flight therefrom, the defendant used or was in possession of a stolen motor vehicle.

     g.  The defendant has been convicted of a crime under N.J.S.2C:14-2 or N.J.S.2C:14-3 involving violence or the threat of violence and the victim of the crime was 16 years of age or less.

     For purposes of this subsection, a crime involves violence or the threat of violence if the victim sustains serious bodily injury as defined in subsection b. of N.J.S.2C:11-1, or the actor is armed with and uses a deadly weapon or threatens by word or gesture to use a deadly weapon as defined in subsection c. of N.J.S.2C:11-1, or threatens to inflict serious bodily injury.

     h.  The crime was committed while the defendant was knowingly involved in criminal street gang related activity.  A crime is committed while the defendant was involved in criminal street gang related activity if the crime was committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with a criminal street gang. "Criminal street gang" means three or more persons associated in fact.  Individuals are associated in fact if (1) they have in common a group name or identifying sign, symbol, tattoo or other physical marking, style of dress or use of hand signs or other indicia of association or common leadership, and (2) individually or in combination with other members of a criminal street gang, while engaging in gang related activity, have committed, conspired or attempted to commit, within the preceding three years, two or more offenses of robbery, carjacking, aggravated assault, assault, aggravated sexual assault, sexual assault, arson, burglary, kidnapping, extortion, or a violation of chapter 11, section 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 of chapter 35 or chapter 39 of Title 2C of the New Jersey Statutes regardless of whether the prior offenses have resulted in convictions.

     The court shall not impose a sentence pursuant to this subsection unless the ground therefore has been established by a preponderance of the evidence established at a hearing, which may occur at the time of sentencing.  In making its finding, the court shall take judicial notice of any testimony or information adduced at the trial, plea hearing or other court proceedings and also shall consider the presentence report and any other relevant information.

     i.  The defendant has been convicted of a crime under section 1 of P.L. 2005, c.77 (C. 2C:13-8) if the victim of the crime was a minor.

(cf: P.L.2001, c.443, s.8)

 

     6.  This act shall take effect immediately.

 

 

STATEMENT

 

     This bill would provide for a mandatory term of imprisonment and increase the fine for the crime of human trafficking. In addition, this bill would provide for an extended term of imprisonment, registration under “Megan’s Law,” and parole supervision for life if the victim is a minor.

     The new crime of human trafficking was established in 2005 pursuant to P.L.2005, c.77.  Human trafficking is a crime of the first degree which carries a term of imprisonment of 10-20 years, a fine of up to $200,000 or both. Currently, this law provides for a mandatory term of imprisonment of 20 years during which time the defendant would not be eligible for parole, or a specific term between 20 years and life imprisonment, of which the defendant would serve 20 years before being eligible for parole if the defendant participated in the human trafficking scheme as an organizer, supervisor, financier or manager.

      This bill would eliminate this qualification for the mandatory term of imprisonment and provide for a mandatory minimum term imprisonment for the crime of human trafficking regardless of whether the defendant acted as an organizer, supervisor, financier or manager. The bill would also provide for an extended term of imprisonment if the victim was a minor. The bill would provide that a conviction for human trafficking would not merge with a conviction for any other criminal offense. In addition, the bill would increase the fine to $500,000.  (See: Section 2 of the bill).

     This bill would also amend “Megan’s law,” N.J.S.A.2C:7-2 to require persons convicted of human trafficking when the victim is a minor to register as a sex offender.  (See: Section 1 of the bill).

     The bill would amend N.J.S.A.2C:43-6.4 to authorize a judge who is imposing a sentence on a person who has been convicted of human trafficking when the victim is a minor to include, in addition to the term of incarceration, a special sentence of parole supervision for life. In addition, the bill would add human trafficking when the victim is a minor to the list of enumerated crimes which if committed by a person while serving a special sentence of parole supervision for life would trigger an extended term of imprisonment, provided an application has been made by the prosecutor.  (See: Section 3 of the bill).

     The bill would also amend N.J.S.A.2C:43-7 and N.J.S.A.2C:44-3 to provide for the extended term for human trafficking when the victim is a minor which would be fixed between 30 years and life imprisonment, of which the defendant would serve 30 years before being eligible for parole.  This extended term provision is similar to the current extended term for kidnapping.  (See: Sections 4 and 5  of the bill).